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Cologne is an Uruguayan department that is placed in the south-west of the country, on the coast where there end the rivers Parana and Uruguay.

It borders to the east on San Jose, to the north on Soriano, to the North-East on Flowers, and on the south and on the west on the capital of the Argentina, Buenos Aires, from which the estuary of the River Plate separates it.

One has a 6.106 km surface ², and a population of 119.266 inhabitants approximately according to the census of 2004, what turns it into one of the sectors most filled with the Uruguay.

The departmental capital is the city of Cologne of the Sacramento, located to 177 km from Montevideo.

His Manager is Dr. Walter Zimmer and the Director of Tourism is the Lic. Andrea Shunk.

Etymologically the name of the department derives from Cologne of the Sacramento, city that gave birth to the current denomination. This one in turn alludes to the big quantity of Empires that in colonial epochs exercised his domain over she, when it was part of the Oriental Band.

Cologne of the Sacramento, today declared a Patrimony of the Humanity, was founded in the year 1680 by the Portuguese forces that settled on the coasts from the River Plate region. In that one then, the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal were in a constant armed struggle, since both countries were proposing to expand his empire, violating often important diplomatic agreements. As a result, both the city, and the department they were from his origins, spectators of the most important conflicts armed in the geopolitical ambience of the River Plate. The place was taken in several opportunities by the Spanish, going on from hand in hand up to falling down again under Lusitanian power and of this one to the Brazilian.

After the Declaration of the Independence was proclaimed one finished the dispute of which in this moment it was the On this side of the Rio de la Plata Province, which then in August, 1825 would happen to be known like the Oriental Republic of the Uruguay. These historical events did that the capital of Cologne, it had a variety of architectural styles, buildings to the colonial style of typical portuguese and housings of Spanish freightage.

Cologne of the Sacramento was located on the peninsula of San Gabriel, and his old town reaches only 12 hectares in his western side, and at present it works like a "National Historical Park" in which holding a permit visits are offered covering museums, fortifications and primitive housings. Also it is characterized by his narrow streets of stone, which emphasize his military tradition.

Cologne is part of the called "flatness platense", characterized by his flatness and the prairies pampeanas bathed of rivers and creeks that end in the River Plate and his tributaries.

His soil is constituted of rocks that give place to stones seas, as it is the case of the Saw of the Bad Overcoat. The chopper of San Salvador that meets in the limit Soriano that as for height relief is the most important. The rest of the department consists of slimes, sand and deposits of clay.

With regard to the hydrography he has a wealth of rivers and creeks, these are: the rivers Rosary and Saint John, and the creeks of the Cows, the Vipers, Cufré and Municipal police, who mostly end in the River Plate.
Opposite to Top San Pedro there are two islands, San Gabriel and Stack, the last one possesses a lighthouse.

The climate is humid and moderate, the annual temperature is 17 and 18 ºC approximately and the precipitations index estimates concerning 1.000 mm his annual average. This favorable situation, along with the natural composition of his soils, makes way to the use of the prairies gramíneas in the direction of the sheep and bovine cattle industry.

The flora is purely pampeana composed for: green pastures, shrubs, trees of medium height like being an eucalyptus, weeping willow, carob, ficus, ombu, pine, etc.

The fauna composes of cattle (bovine, sheep, equine, porcine), poultry, venteveos, teros, colibríes, field parrots, zorrillos, hares, rabbits and wild mice.
On the coast from the River Plate region different types of fish are appreciated, and dolphin of the Silver one can see the acquaintance.

Cologne presents a privileged geographical position, and from which many people have wanted to benefit along the history. She is located opposite to the coast of the Argentine capital, to 60 km approximately of the from Buenos Aires center. It is a tantalizing option for immense most of those who reside in the nearby shore.

During the weekend or in the holy week it receives a big number of tourists.

The way of transport that more is used is the buquebus, a ship that sets off from the Port of Buenos Aires and covers the majority of the river of the Silver up to anchoring in Cologne of the Sacramento or in the Port of Montevideo, in whose case also crosses waters colonienses. The stretch from Buenos Aires changes Cologne from one hour until three hours of trip (time estimated in crossing the estuary of the Silver of side to side, and depending on the climatic conditions).

Also one can gain access for terrestrial route across the national route nº 1 (called Brigadier Manuel Oribe), who is born in Montevideo in felt west and it understands to the department of San Jose; the route nº 2 (or of Asencio's Scream) that goes out of Brother Bentos and finishes in Rosary; or the route nº 11 (José Batlle y Ordoñez) who proceeds from Cannelloni and intercepts with the nº 1 in the locality maragata of Ecilda Paullier, to a few kilometers before coming to Piece of news Helvecia.

Also he has a small national and regional airport that the private companies of flight usually use.

The iron line that route San Jose was coming to Montevideo, from 1991 is closed, although there are projects for his reopening. Also it is closed from the year 1996, the iron line that borders on the department in direction of Mercedes, but it is during reopening.

In the last years a project has arisen between the Argentine government and the Uruguayan of constructing an international bridge that crosses the river of the Silver of both sides, turning into the longest of the world. Nevertheless, and despite the attempts for specifying the project, there are no recadado the sufficient funds to give beginning to the works.

The department is characterized for being the first one at national level as for the milk production, all his derivatives being exported, be already a cheese (in different varieties), fat, sweet of milk, yogurt and double cream (or cream), between others. As a consequence of this many multinational companies decided to place his divisions here and exploit the raw material of the region.

The beekeeping has being a tradition since they went so far as a big quantity of European immigrants to populate this one area principally proceeding from Italy and Switzerland. Piece of news Helvecia, whose residents are in the majority Swiss progeny, possesses perhaps the biggest development of honey of the country. In her and in other areas of Cologne it is common to find handmade farms where the tourists and the places are welcome to taste the home-made sweet of milk, the jams, the cheese colony and a wide scale of wines of wine vault. Also, dairy, sheep and porcine cattle grows up.

With regard to the agriculture it stands firm and harvests corn, sunflower, linen, barley, vine, fruits, olives and some fodder plants.

Also there is stones quarries, talc and limestones for the construction. The principal port activity is centralized in Juan Lacaze, Cologne of the Sacramento, New Palmira and Carmelo.

Another important capital revenue the son the producing industries of role, synthetic fibres and textiles, the stone extraction, the mills of refinement of flour, the shipyard and the articles about aluminum.

Along with Montevideo and Cannelloni, Cologne is the third department with major index of population of italo-Swiss origin. Nevertheless, in contrast to the first ones, it possesses inhabitants' minor quantity that they are interspersed in small urban areas, favoring the development of small communities that remain established to his customs and traditions, but without cutting itself off of the Uruguayan life style.

The immigrants' arrival to the Uruguay takes place at the end of the XIXth century and at the beginning of the XXth, as a consequence of which the economic situation of Europe was unstable and numerous families had to set off towards America in search of a better quality of life. Cologne, considering his port condition, it lodged to an immigrants' big quantity that they were coming principally from Switzerland, Italy, Poland, Spain and from France and Germany in minor measurement.

With the passing of time the foreign influence has made be evident on the place, being founded new peoples and rural areas with new customs.
The cities that have been founded by the immigrants are: Piece of news Helvecia (earlier called Cologne Switzerland), Cologne Valdense, and Cologne Piamontesa (created by original citizens of Piedmont, region of the north of Italy).

Related :
Cologne Uruguayan department south-west rivers Parana Uruguay surface population Cologne of the Sacramento Patrimony of the Humanity I occur rarely hydrography climate flora fauna tourists buquebus beekeeping agriculture immigrant role industries
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